HISTORY AND GEOPOLITICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The concept of regional administration as a means to enhance and promote socio-economic development has long been pursued in the country since 1954. However, it was only during the martial law regime that administrative regions were established. The Integrated Reorganization Plan embodied in Presidential Decree No.1, created eleven regions, three of which are in Mindanao (Regions IX,X and XI).
Under PD No. 1, Region X was among the bigger regions in the country then composed of the provinces of Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Camiguin, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur; and the cities of Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Gingoog, Iligan, Oroquieta, Ozamiz and Tangub.
In 1975, then President Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. 742, later amended by Presidential Decree 743, creating Region XII and transferring thereto the Provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur. The same Presidential Decree transferred Surigao del Sur to Region XI.
In February 1995, then President Fidel V. Ramos signed into law Republic Act 7901 creating Region XIII (the Caraga Administrative Region), which further trimmed down Region X's jurisdiction, as the Agusan provinces and Surigao del Norte including the cities therein became part of the new region.
Then President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 36 on September 19,2001 "Reorganizing the Mindanao Regions", which then reverted the province of Lanao del Norte and the city of Iligan to Region X.At the tip of Northern Mindanao, Region X now is composed of five provinces and two highly urbanized cities, seven component cities, 84 municipalities and 2,022 barangays. These are the provinces of Bukidnon, Camiguin, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental, the highly urbanized cities of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan and the component cities of Gingoog, Malaybalay, Oroquieta, Ozamiz, Tangub, Valencia and El Salvador. Lanao del Norte has the highest number of barangays with 462 while Camiguin has the lowest number of 58 having only five municipalities.Table 1.0 shows the political subdivisions.