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Diabetes and complicationsDiabetes is a disease that affects millions of individuals throughout the world and is defined by high blood glucose levels caused by excessive glucose synthesis, primarily by the liver, and underutilization by insulin-requiring organs such as the liver, adipose, and muscle tissues. Diabetes impacts negatively on the arteries, predisposing them to atherosclerosis, which leads to high blood pressure and other heart problems. It can cause blood vessel damage, stroke, heart failure, heart attack, or kidney failure if not treated. High blood pressure (BP), on the other hand, is a major risk factor for the development and worsening of many diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy and/or nephropathy, which affects up to 60% of people with diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes, is caused by the pancreas's inability to produce insulin. Recent evidence suggests that when the pancreas is attacked by its immune cells (autoimmune attack), the immune system produces antibodies and inflammatory cells, making β-cells incapable of producing insulin. Interestingly, some studies have found that breastfeeding reduces the risk of diabetes later in life, but no firm evidence with other nutritional factors has been found. Excessive thirst and urination, hunger, and weight loss can lead to kidney problems, nerve pain, blindness, and heart and blood vessel disease over time.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: People with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes mellitus (AODM), have enough insulin in their bodies, but their cells become resistant to it. It usually affects adults over the age of 35, but it can affect anyone, including children. T2D is primarily determined by genetics and lifestyle factors. Obesity, lack of exercise, increased age, and, to some point, genetic predisposition all contribute to this lifestyle disease. The pancreas produces either insufficient (in insulin resistance) or excessive amounts of insulin. Other risk factors include a strong genetic component and obesity, and there is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes is the third type of diabetes (GD). It can happen temporarily during pregnancy because significant hormonal changes can cause blood sugar elevation in genetically predisposed individuals. GD affects approximately 4% of all pregnant women worldwide, usually during the second trimester, and resolves after the baby is born. Complications can affect both the mother and the baby if GD is not controlled. As a result, a diet and exercise plan, as well as medication, are required.
  • Other Types of Diabetes: There are several other types of diabetes, and a person may have more than one. Diabetes caused by genetic beta-cell defects is known as maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) or neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM). The onset of this multifactorial, polygenic disease is a multistep process characterized by a defect in insulin secretion and action. Long before full-blown diabetes starts to develop, the body cells go through a pre-diabetic condition in which the cells become resistant to insulin or the pancreas is unable to produce as much insulin as needed.
  • Vicious Cycle: High blood pressure is commonly associated with high insulin levels, which may cause high blood pressure and make weight loss more difficult. Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure (BP), is a man-made disease caused by overeating refined grains, sugar, oils, margarine, inactivity, stress, and smoking, which was unheard of in primitive cultures that ate unprocessed foods. Diabetes can be caused by a disease, genetics, or a poor diet, whereas hypertension is typically caused by genetics, diet, and stress. Individuals with abnormal glucose and insulin metabolism are more likely to develop hypertension, and; untreated hypertension has higher than normal plasma insulin, is resistant to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and is frequently associated with lipid disorders.

The good news is that type 2 diabetes can be avoided by anyone.

Diabetes can be managed by maintaining ideal weight, changing one's diet, taking food supplements as needed, and by exercising. For the treatment of hypertension in patients with metabolic complications, several therapies are available. The initial approach is thought to be lifestyle modification with weight management being the most important component. Get lose from those excessive weight or unwanted fats from your body and maintain a healthy body coupled with adequate physical activity. Of course, make the best food choices and have a diet that promises a better glucose control.

JEZER Z. CALINGACION, RND
PNFP ZSP

References:

Chattopadhyay, D. (2020). Diabetes and Hypertension: A Cause and Effect Synergy? Retrieved November 11, 2021, from the Academia website: https://www.academia.edu/8107033/Diabetes_and_Hypertension_A_Cause_and_Effect_Synergy

Corry, D.B., & Tuck, M.L. (1996). Glucose and insulin metabolism in hypertension. Retrieved November 11, 2021, from the PubMed website: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8739882/